Brief history of Mozambique summarized
We give a brief and simple overview of the history of Mozambique, an African country that was colonized by the Portuguese.
After 100 AD the Bantus arrived in what is now Mozambique. They lived from agriculture and made iron tools. They were organized in small kingdoms. In the 9th century, Arab merchants reached the coast of Mozambique. For centuries there was trade between Africans and Arabs.
During the 16th century, the Portuguese established trading posts along the coast of Mozambique. They also took over part of the land and divided it into large estates called prazos. However, for centuries Portugal had only very limited control over Mozambique.
The situation changed at the end of the 19th century when Europeans divided Africa among themselves. In 1891 Great Britain and Portugal signed a treaty. The British recognized the borders of Portuguese East Africa (Mozambique). In Mozambique a network of railways was built, but nothing was done for the natives.
In the 1950s and early 1960s, the situation in Africa changed and many African countries became independent. In 1962, the Mozambique Liberation Front (Frelimo) was founded.
However, the Portuguese were determined to keep their colonies in Africa. In 1964 Frelimo began an armed struggle. The war lasted 10 years and the Portuguese were losing ground. Finally, on June 25, 1975, Mozambique became an independent nation.
However, the new Mozambican government adopted socialist policies that impoverished Mozambique. Worse still, from 1977 Mozambique was divided by civil war. An anticommunist organization called Renamo fought against the government for 15 years.
However, by 1989 Frelimo had abandoned his socialist policies and in 1990 published a new constitution. Then, in 1992, a peace agreement was reached with Renamo. In 1994 elections were held. Mozambique recovered from the war and today is developing rapidly.
Mozambique suffered further setbacks in 2000 and 2001, when it suffered severe flooding. Then, in 2002, it suffered a severe drought. However, Mozambique soon recovered. Mozambique is still a poor country, but the economy is constantly growing. Mozambique has great tourism potential. Today the population of Mozambique is 28 million inhabitants.
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