Flora and fauna of Canada

Flora of Canada

A great variety of plant and animal life characterizes the vast area of ​​Canada, with its varied geographic and climatic zones.

The flora of the Great Lakes-St. Lawrence region resembles that of the adjacent American section, with white pine, hemlock, sugar and red maples, yellow birch, and beech trees. The maritime region is dominated by conifers, especially red spruce, black spruce in the eastern Laurentian, and white spruce in the western.

red spruce flora canada

Balsam fir, white cedar, tamarisk, white birch, and aspen are also found in the east, with Aleppo pine in drier areas. From prairie to arctic tundra there are aspens, oaks, Gilead balsams, aspens, balsam poplars, white birches, and other deciduous trees.

Conifers dominate the northern section. Many types of grasses grow on the interior plains. The wetlands along the West Coast are famous for their tall, hardy conifers: western hemlock and red cedar, Douglas fir, Sitka fir, and western white pine.

Subalpine forests cover the area of ​​the Rocky Mountains, where conifers such as alpine fir, Engelmann’s spruce, lodgepole pine and aspen, and mountain hemlock are found. The great arctic region is covered with grasses, mosses, and low-growing shrubs.

arctic tundra canada

Wildlife of Canada

With 200 species of mammals, 462 species of birds, and a wide variety of ocean life, Canada is an animal lover’s paradise.


Adult males weigh on average up to 360 kg and females up to 180 kg. Their front claws are around 5cm long and there are around 25,000 bears in Canada.

brown bear canada

Grizzly bears don’t have to worry about other predators as they don’t have much competition in size, so other animals tend to avoid confrontation with them unless it’s self-defense.


Also known as the mountain lion (or cougar in English), the cougar range stretches from the Canadian Yukon to the southern Andes of South America. The cougar is an ambush predator and stalks its prey, hunting deer, cattle, and small species such as insects and rodents.

cougar canada

They have been known to stalk and kill humans, but this is rare and most likely due to human populations spreading across their range.

I raised

The elk is the largest living species of the deer family and likes to live only in deciduous forests. Their range includes most of Canada, but unfortunately the North American moose population is rapidly declining.

moose canadian wildlife

Moose are herbivores, eating almost 10,000 calories per day with their lower incisors. They can weigh up to 700 kg. Many visitors flock to Algonquin Park in central Ontario to see if they can spot them, but sightings of any of the 3,000 moose that live in the 3,000-square-meter park are not guaranteed!

Giant Canada Goose

It is really a pleasure to see these beautiful birds flying through the skies. They have strong family ties and tend to return to their natal homes to nest. There are 7 recognized species and they are the largest goose in the world, with some weighing up to 9kg.

giant canadian goose

Their black head and neck with a white chin strap distinguish them from all other species of geese. Keep an eye on the skies to spot any.


From humpback whales to blue whales to killer whales, Canada is the perfect place to see these magnificent creatures. You can witness 200 killer whales at play in the Robson Bight Ecological Reserve, or if you’re in British Columbia from March through mid-October, try to spot some of the 20,000 gray whales as they leave the Baja California Peninsula and head toward Alaska.

whales in canada

There are plenty of tours available, and while you’re not always guaranteed to see one, some tours offer a refund if you don’t!


The Vancouver Island Marmot is only found in the high mountains of Vancouver Island. Groundhogs are the largest members of the squirrel family and like to live in burrows. It is one of the rarest animals in the world, but thanks to conservation efforts, there are now around 250-300 of them living in 28 mountains.

groundhog in canada

Groundhogs are obligate herbivores, eating 30 species of food plants. They hibernate for about 210 days a year, from late September to late April or early May.


It looks like a small bear, but the wolverine is more closely related to the family Mustelidae (weasels). It is a muscular carnivore and has a reputation for ferocity and has been documented killing prey many times its size. They are also very opportunistic and burrow into the carcasses of large animals.

wolverine canada

Successful males form lifelong associations with two or three females who visit occasionally. You’ll find them in high elevation forests and in their greatest numbers in Canada, but you’ll be very lucky if you see one of these in the wild.

American pike

Its size may be small, but you still have to be careful. The pica is an animal in the same family that includes rabbits and hares. They like to live in cooler regions and are very sensitive to high temperatures. They are considered to be one of the first detectors of global warming.

american pike

Recent studies have shown that pica in lower-lying areas have been eating paper and nutrient-poor mosses to adapt to global warming.

You may see them, or more likely, hear their cries in Banff or Jasper National Park.


These large bison (or buffalo) were traditionally hunted by nomadic white and indigenous hunters and nearly became extinct in the 1850s. However, thanks to conservation efforts, their numbers in the wild are recovering. Parks Canada plans to reintroduce the Plains Bison to Banff National Park to help restore numbers and promote tourism.

bison canada buffalo

Due to their size, they have few predators, however, wolves can attack in packs and grizzlies, coyotes, and grays can also take them down. The best places to see Bison are Wood Buffalo National Park, Elk Island National Park, or Saskatchewan’s Prince Albert National Park.


You can see this creature whenever you want. Take a close look at a Canadian coin. Caribou is found on the back of the coin. This member of the deer family lives in the forests, mountains, and tundra of northern Canada. The majestic caribou is built for its harsh life up north.


Its large hooves help the creature to walk through the snow. They are also useful for digging for food. Caribou use their hooves like a shovel, searching for moss and other plants under the snow.

That said, many herds of caribou engage in a long migration as winter approaches. They move south, traveling hundreds of kilometers, to a slightly warmer climate where they can feed on grasses and plants. When summer comes, they head north again.


The beaver is the largest rodent in North America. And it is also a national symbol of Canada. It lives in and around lakes throughout much of the country and is known to be a very strong swimmer. In fact, he can swim underwater for up to 15 minutes. It even has valves in its ears and nose that close when diving underwater.

american beaver

The beaver spends most of its time building dams and building houses, or lodges, out of branches. It relies on its large front teeth to chop and fell the trees and branches it needs. And he has some serious construction skills.

The world’s largest beaver dam is 850 meters long, or about the length of 60 school buses parked end to end, and is located in Alberta.

Polar Bear

The polar bear, found in the Canadian Arctic, is the world’s largest land carnivore. It feeds mainly on seals that live in the frozen Arctic sea. The polar bear is a strong swimmer and diver and uses these abilities to stalk its meals.

polar bear in canada

Your body is perfectly made for life in this cold environment. For starters, the polar bear has thick fur and a layer of fat under its skin that helps keep it comfortable in its cold weather. Even their paws are perfect for life in the Arctic. The bottom of the bear’s paws have thick, black pads that are covered with small bumps. These bumps give the polar bear traction on snow and ice, preventing it from slipping.

Canadian lynx

This mostly nocturnal animal looks like an adorable house cat with a twist. The lynx thrives in the forests of Canada and subsists on a diet of snowshoe hares.

canadian lynx


Feeding on a diet of marine species, these social animals have a language of their own consisting of clicks, whistles and chirps that help them communicate with each other and thwart danger.

beluga whale

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