History of Morocco

Brief history of Morocco summarized

A brief overview of the history of Morocco, a country in North Africa.

Morocco in ancient times

Morocco’s written history began around 1,000 BC when a people called the Phoenicians from what is now Lebanon sailed there. The Phoenicians were great traders and they founded trading posts in Morocco.

The Phoenicians founded the city of Carthage in what is now Tunisia. Soon Carthage became the dominant power in the region. Meanwhile, around 400 BC, the native Berbers formed the kingdom of Mauretania.

In 146 BC the Romans conquered Carthage and their influence in North Africa gradually grew. Finally, in AD 42, the Romans annexed the kingdom of Mauretania. Morocco remained under Roman rule until the 5th century AD

In the year 681 the Arabs began to raid Morocco and by the year 705 they were in control. The Arabs introduced Islam to Morocco and in 711 they invaded Spain. They soon conquered most of it.

However, Morocco was soon divided into several different kingdoms. In 789 a man named Idriss founded a small kingdom and his son Idriss II made Fez the capital. In the following centuries, Fez became a cultural center.

In the 11th century the Berbers called the Almoravids from what is now Mauritania and advanced north and conquered Morocco. Then, in the 12th century, a people called the Almohads rebelled against the Almoravids and founded a new dynasty.

Under the Almoravids Moroccan culture flourished. However, in the 13th century the Almohads lost most of the Muslim territory in Spain. Only Granada remained.

Also, in the year 1248 a people called the Marinids began to overthrow the Almohads, although it was not until 1269 that they captured Marrakech and put an end to the old dynasty. Then the same cycle followed. The Marinids eventually declined and were overthrown. The next Berber dynasty was called the Wattasid. They began to take power in 1240 and ruled all of Morocco in 1469.

The next Moroccan dynasty was of Arab origin. The Saadians captured Marrakech in 1525 and Fez in 1548. The Saadian dynasty reached its height during the years 1578-1603 at the time of Ahmed el-Mansour, known as the Golden One. However, after his death, the dynasty declined.

Moulay Rachid 1664-1672 founded a new dynasty, the Alaouites. Under Moulay Ismail 1672-1727 Morocco was a strong and centralized state. During the 19th century, Morocco remained an independent country.

Modern morocco

However, in 1912 Morocco was forced to become a French protectorate. Moroccans naturally resented their loss of independence and the entire country was not subdued until 1934.

However, in 1942, during World War II, the Allies landed in Morocco and Roosevelt sympathized with the Moroccans. In 1944 a Manifesto of Independence was published and in 1947 the sultan declared himself in favor of independence.

In 1953 the French deposed the sultan, but he returned in 1956. Morocco became independent in 1956.

Hassan II became King of Morocco in 1961 and reigned until 1991. During the 1960s and 1970s, Morocco suffered from political instability. A constitution was written in 1962, followed by another in 1970. However, the king survived two coup attempts in 1971 and 1972. Then, in 1981, there were riots in Casablanca.

In 1996 Morocco received a new constitution and in 1999 Mohammed VI became king. Today Morocco is a rapidly developing country. The main industries are tourism and textiles.

In July 2011, the voters of Morocco approved a new constitution for the country. Today the population of Morocco is 34 million inhabitants.

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