History of Warsaw

Brief history of Warsaw summarized

The history of Warsaw allows us to delve into the dark past of the capital of Poland.

Old Warsaw

warsaw flagWarsaw developed later than other Polish cities. In the 10th century there was a small settlement on the Wisla river. However, it did not become a city until the 14th century. In 1413 Warsaw became the capital of the Duchy of Masovia.

So in 1526 Masovia became an integral part of the Kingdom of Poland. The Warsaw Barbican was built in 1548. In 1569 Poland joined Lithuania and the Sejm (parliament) voted to meet in Warsaw.

Later in 1596 Warsaw became the capital of Poland, making it much more important. The Column of Sigismund III was erected in 1644. Warsaw suffered in the war with Sweden in 1655-1660.

However, Wilanow Palace was built in the late 17th century, and the 18th century was a great time for the city. Warsaw’s population grew and the architecture flourished. The Saxon Gardens were built in the early 18th century. The National Theater was founded in 1765.

30 years later, in 1795 Warsaw was taken by Prussia. In 1806 Napoleon made Warsaw the capital of the Duchy of Warsaw. But already in 1815 the Congress of Vienna handed over Warsaw to Russia.

Modern Warsaw

In the 19th century Warsaw gradually developed. The University of Warsaw was founded in 1816. The statue of Nicolaus Copernicus was unveiled in 1830. In 1848 a railway to Vienna was opened. The Powiśle Mermaid statue was made in 1855.

Warsaw’s population also increased rapidly. Warsaw obtained sewers and a supply of piped water. Likewise, they began to have gaslight. From 1904 it had electricity. After 1908 electric trams ran through the streets of Warsaw.

Marie Curie was born on November 7, 1867 in Warsaw as Marya Sklodowska.

In 1915, during World War I, the Germans captured Warsaw. In 1918 Poland became an independent nation again and Warsaw became its capital. In 1920 the Battle of Warsaw was fought between the Poles and the communist Russians to the east of the city. Also in 1920 the Museum of the Polish Army was founded. After these setbacks, Warsaw continued to flourish.

It was not until September 1939 that the Germans invaded Poland again. They began to bombard Warsaw and captured it on September 27. At that time, about 1/3 of the population of Warsaw was Jewish (about 380,000 people). Beginning in October 1940, the Germans herded Jews in and around Warsaw into a ghetto.

In 1942, the Germans began deporting Jews from the ghetto to concentration camps. In April 1943, the remaining Jews in the ghetto revolted. They fought valiantly, but the Germans were far better armed and inevitably the uprising was crushed.

Later on August 1, 1944, the town revolted in the Warsaw Uprising. She was brave, but the Nazis rushed to reinforce her and slowly retake the city, with their usual brutality. The Poles finally surrendered on October 2, 1944. Meanwhile, Stalin did nothing in the face of the confrontations that occurred. On September 17, 1945, the Russians captured Warsaw.

At the end of World War II, Warsaw was devastated. Most of its buildings were destroyed. Over the years, the city was slowly rebuilt, and attempts were made to replicate the buildings that existed before the city was destroyed.

The Palace of Culture and Science was built in 1955. In 1967 the Marie Curie Museum was founded. The Warsaw Rising Monument was opened in 1989. The Museum of Independence was founded in 1990. The Warsaw Metro was opened in 1995. The Warsaw Financial Center was built in 1998. The Warsaw Rising Museum opened in 2004.

Today Warsaw is a charming city that continues to grow, with a variety of cultural performances, and has a population of 1.8 million.

Share the brief history of Warsaw.

Leave a Reply

Your email address will not be published. Required fields are marked *

Back to top button