Brief history of Slovenia summarized
A brief review of the summarized history of Slovenia, a European country.
Around 3,500 stone age farmers lived in what is now Slovenia. The bronze age followed from 750 BC the iron age. Then, around 400 BC, the Celts settled in Slovenia. They formed the state of Noricum.
However, in 10 BC the Romans conquered Slovenia. Under Roman rule, Slovenia prospered and cities such as Emona (Ljubljana), Celeia (Celje), and Poetovio (Ptuj) were founded. However, Roman rule collapsed in the 5th century AD
In the 6th century AD the Slavs arrived in Slovenia. However, in the 8th century they came under the rule of the central European Franks and in the 9th century Slovenia was absorbed into the Holy Roman Empire, which was centered in Germany. Meanwhile, the missionaries converted Slovenia to Christianity.
In the 10th to 13th centuries Slovenia remained under German rule. However, at the beginning of the 12th century, cities were founded in Slovenia and trade flourished. However, in the 14th century, the Habsburg dynasty came to control Slovenia. The Habsburgs won Carinthia and Carniola in 1335, and Istria in 1374 and Trieste in 1382.
In the late 15th and 16th centuries, Slovenian peasants frequently revolted. However, all the rebellions failed. Meanwhile, the Turks threatened Slovenia. However, they were crushed at the Battle of Sisak in 1593. The Reformation also shook Slovenia.
At the beginning of the 16th century Protestantism made some progress, but at the end of the century the Catholic Counter-Reformation reconverted Slovenia. The 18th century was a prosperous time for Slovenia and its industries flourished. At the end of the 18th century, religious freedom was allowed and primary education was made compulsory.
Slovenia in the 19th and early 20th centuries
In the 18th century, Slovenia was part of the Austro-Hungarian Empire. However, Napoleon wanted to cut off Austria – Hungary from the sea. So in 1809 he created an area that he called the Illyrian Provinces. The Slovenian language is used in schools and in government.
However, in 1814, with Napoleon’s defeat, Slovenia was absorbed into the Austro-Hungarian Empire. However, at the beginning of the 19th century Slovenian literature flourished. The first figure was France Preseren (1800-1849).
In 1848, Europe was rocked by revolutions. The Slovenes demanded an autonomous Slovenia and the use of the Slovene language in schools and in government. The emperor refused, but at the end of the 19th century the Slovenes formed political parties. However, they wanted autonomy instead of absolute independence. However, many Slovenians emigrated at the end of the 19th century.
A Serb named Stojan Protic became the first Prime Minister. In 1929 the next king, Alexander became absolute ruler and renamed the kingdom Yugoslavia. However, he was assassinated in 1934 and his cousin Pablo became regent.
In March 1941 the regent signed a treaty with Germany, but was overthrown in a coup. In response, the Germans bombed Belgrade on April 6, 1941, and invaded Yugoslavia. He conquered the country in a matter of days. During World War II, Slovenian partisans fought against the Germans.
Starting in 1943 some anti-communists called the Slovenian Domobranci supported the Germans to prevent the spread of communism. However, they failed and in May 1945 Slovenia was completely liberated.
The Domobranci withdrew to Austria, where the British disarmed them. However, the anticommunists were sent back to Yugoslavia, where they died. Some 12,000 were killed by the partisans. After the war, Trieste was placed under Anglo-American control, and in 1954 it was awarded to Italy.
Meanwhile, Slovenia became part of a communist Yugoslavia led by Tito. Industry developed and the standard of living increased. However, many Slovenians resented the way resources were diverted away from them and into the less prosperous parts of Yugoslavia. Tito died in 1980 and in the late 1980s Yugoslavia began to break up.
Opposition parties were formed in Slovenia. In 1989 they published the May Declaration demanding independence and democracy. Free elections were held in Slovenia in April 1990, and a referendum on the question of independence was held in December 1990. The people were overwhelmingly in favour, so on June 25, 1991, the Slovenian parliament declared independence from Slovenia.
The Yugoslav army half-heartedly attempted to invade Slovenia on June 27, 1991. However, the Slovenian Territorial Defense Forces and the police kept them in check. On July 7, the Yugoslavs agreed to an EU-brokered ceasefire.
In December 1991 Slovenia obtained a new constitution and on January 15, 1992 the EU recognized its independence. Like many Eastern European countries, Slovenia faced a painful transition from communism to capitalism during the 1990s.
However, in 2004 Slovenia became a member of the EU. Also in 2004 Slovenia joined NATO. In 2007 Slovenia joined the euro.
Slovenia, like the rest of Europe, was hit by the 2009 recession but soon recovered. Today its economy is constantly growing. Tourism is a flourishing industry in Slovenia. Today, the population of Slovenia is more than 2 million.
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